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如果你在了解了01与02之后,依然要申请CS博士,我真的对你送上衷心的祝福。期待你能够顺利的走通CS博士申请。接下来,我就梳理一下要做什么准备。

4条建议
背后的原因
选择非敏感的方向
主要是担心签证会过不了。虽然方向敏感也不是100%被拒,但是的确增加了签证被拒的概率。就算不被拒,那被check的概率是非常高的,而check的时间越久,越有可能耽误上学。
仔细思考要读System大类还是AI大类的博士
任何PhD应该都不希望自己读博期间做的东西是不接业界地气的(如果这个PhD毕业后是想找业界工作的话)。而根据肖哥的观察,从概率的角度来说,读System大类的PhD,比读AI大类的PhD,相对更容易遭遇做的东西不接业界地气的这种事。但是如果已经接业界地气了,那是System大类的PhD比AI大类的PhD要更值得读一些。

我的意思是,比如:
100个System PhD的机会里,可能20个对System就业有用,80个对System就业用处小;
100个AI PhD的机会里,可能40个对AI就业有用,60个对AI就业用处小;
但是,那20个对System就业有用的PhD,与,那40个对AI就业有用的PhD,哪个更值得读?都值得读,但是相对来说,大概率是前者更值得读。

(但是这些结论都不绝对,需要具体情况具体分析。所以这里列的结论真的是仅供参考,可能会变哈,我需要看到具体的机会以及方向才能下出更准确的结论。)
做一下深入的查阅与调查,看看不同方向都是做什么的,然后可能还要自己动手做做一些简单的任务试试看是什么感觉
如果一个人没吃过西红柿、也没吃过土豆,你问他更喜欢吃什么,他可能回答不出来;但是她如果这两种食物都吃过了,他就能知道自己更喜欢吃什么了。有些东西的确只有自己尝试了才能知道自己喜欢什么。
选择1-2个你最钟爱的方向、加1-3个与之相关的方向
读PhD就是与科研谈一场5年的恋爱。如果你不喜欢这个方向,那你会很挣扎、甚至会随时想要quit这个PhD。选择最喜欢的方向后,做起来会最有动力。不过,还是不要把方向框的太死,相关方向也稍微选择一下,最终确立自己的方向。



那接下来我们就看看美国Top 40的大学的CS专业都有哪些CS方向(这里只陈列方向名字,但是细节需要去官网看,因为细节太多了,在我这网站上也列不下):


  • CS四大
  • CS专排5-10
  • CS专排11-15
  • CS专排16-20
  • CS专排21-26
  • CS专排27-30
  • CS专排31-35
  • CS专排36-40
1 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology 麻省理工学院
(1) AI and Society (2) AI for Healthcare and Life Sciences (3) Biological and Medical Devices and Systems (4) Communications Systems (5) Computational Fabrication and Manufacturing (6) Computer Architecture (7) Educational Technology (8) Electronic, Magnetic, Optical and Quantum Materials and Devices (9) Energy (10) Graphics and Vision (11) Human-Computer Interaction (12) Information Science and Systems (13) Integrated Circuits and Systems (14) Nanoscale Materials, Devices, and Systems (15) Natural Language and Speech Processing (16) Optics + Photonics (17) Optimization and Game Theory (18) Programming Languages and Software Engineering (19) Quantum Computing, Communication, and Sensing (20) Robotics (21) Security and Cryptography (22) Signal Processing (23) Systems and Networking (24) Systems Theory, Control, and Autonomy (25) Theory of Computation





2 - Carnegie Mellon University 卡耐基梅隆大学
College of Engineering: (1) Advanced Manufacturing (2) Artificial Intelligence (3) COVID-19 (4) Cyberphysical Systems (5) Cybersecurity (6) Energy & Environment (7) Health & Biomedicine (8) Robotics Heinz College of Information Systems and Public Policy: (1) Arts & Entertainment (2) Crime & Drug Policy (3) Cyber Security & Data Privacy (4) Digital Consumer Behavior (5) International & Labor Economics (6) Energy & Environment (7) Health Care (8) Information Technology (9) Smart Cities Mellon College of Science: (1) Sustainability Science (2) Computational Finance (3) Cosmology (4) Life Sciences Breakthroughs (5) Quantum Computing (6) Materials of the Future (7) Neuroscience (8) Mathematical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence School of Computer Science - Computational Biology Department: (1) Algorithms in Nature (2) Statistical Machine Learning Methods for Genetical Genomics Analysis (3) Bringing machine learning to the clinic (4) Molecular Design and Simulation (5) Computational Medicine (6) Active learning of cell organization (7) How The Genome Evolved for Vocal Learning and Speech Production (8) The Immune Basis of Alzheimer’s Disease School of Computer Science - Computer Science Department: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Graphics (3) Programming Languages (4) Security (5) Systems (6) Theory School of Computer Science - Human-Computer Interaction Institute: (1) Accessibility (2) Applied Machine Learning (3) Artificial Intelligence (AI) (4) Augmented Reality (AR) (5) Computational Creativity (6) Computational Fabrication (7) Context-Aware Computing (8) Crowdsourcing (9) Design Research (10) Education (11) Enabling Technologies (12) Fairness,Accountability,Transparency,and Ethics (FATE) (13) Future of Work (14) Game Design (15) Healthcare (16) Human Assistance (17) Human-Centered Al (18) Learning Sciences and Technologies (19) Security and Privacy (20) Service Design (21) Social Computing (22) Social Good (23) Societal Problems (24) Tools (25) Virtual Reality (VR) (26) Wearables School of Computer Science - Language Technologies Institute: (1) Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics (2) Information Retrieval, Text Mining and Analytics (3) Information Extraction, Summarization and Question Answering (4) Speech Processing (5) Spoken Interfaces and Dialogue Processing (6) Multimodal Computing and Interaction (7) Language Technologies for Education (8) Machine Translation (9) Machine Learning (10) Computational Biology (11) Knowledge Representation, Reasoning and Acquisition (12) Knowledge Representation and Reasoning School of Computer Science - Machine Learning Department
官网没细写方向 https://www.ml.cmu.edu/research/ School of Computer Science - Robotics Institute: (1) Field & Service Robotics (2) Graphics & Creative Tools (3) Human-Centered Robotics (4) Manipulation & Interfaces (5) Robot Structures (6) Robotics Foundations (7) Sensing & Perception School of Computer Science - Software and Societal Systems Department: (1) Analysis & Assurance (2) APIs & Frameworks (3) Applied Systems and Infrastructure (4) Architecture & Design (5) Autonomous Systems (6) Complex Socio-Technical Systems (7) Computing Technology and Policy (8) Developer Tools (9) Distributed Systems (10) Languages (11) Network Science and Social Networks (12) Organizations (13) Privacy and Security (14) Requirements (15) Software Data Analysis Entertainment Technology Center
官网没细写方向 https://www.etc.cmu.edu/ Integrated Innovation Institute
官网没细写方向 https://www.cmu.edu/iii/projects-research/index.html



2 - Stanford University 斯坦福大学
(1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Architecture (3) Biomedicine and Health Computational Biology (4) Computational Cognitive&Neuro-science (5) Computer Graphics (6) Computer Security (7) Computer Systems (8) Computer Vision (9) Data Science (10) Computational Education (11) Empirical Machine Learning (12) Human-Centered and Creative Al (13) Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) (14) Machine Learning (15) Natural Language Processing and Speech (16) Networking (17) Operating/Distributed Systems (18) Programming Systems and Verification (19) Reinforcement Learning (20) Robotics (21) Statistical or Theoretical Machine Learning Theory





2 - University of California - Berkeley 加州大学伯克利分校
(1) Artificial Intelligence (AI) (2) Computer Architecture & Engineering (ARC) (3) Biosystems & Computational Biology (BIO) (4) Control, Intelligent Systems, and Robotics (CIR) (5) Cyber-Physical Systems and Design Automation (CPSDA) (6) Database Management Systems (DBMS) (7) Education (EDUC) (8) Power and Energy (ENE) (9) Graphics (GR) (10) Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) (11) Information, Data, Network, and Communication
(12) Sciences (IDNCS) (13) Integrated Circuits (INC) (14) Micro/Nano Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (15) Operating Systems & Networking (OSNT) (16) Physical Electronics (PHY) (17) Programming Systems (PS) (18) Scientific Computing (SCI) (19) Security (SEC) (20) Signal Processing (SP) (21) Theory (THY)




5 - University of Illinois - Urbana Champaign 伊利诺伊大学厄本那-香槟分校
(1) Architecture, Compilers, and Parallel Computing (2) Artificial Intelligence (3) Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (4) Computers and Education (5) Data and Information Systems (6) Interactive Computing (7) Programming Languages, Formal Methods, and (8) Software Engineering (9) Scientific Computing (10) Security and Privacy (11) Systems and Networking (12) Theory and Algorithms



6 - Cornell University 康奈尔大学 Ithaca: (1) Architecture (2) Artificial Intelligence (3) Computational Biology (4) Database Systems (5) Graphics (6) Human Interaction (7) Machine Learning (8) Natural Language Processing (9) Programming Languages (10) Robotics (11) Scientific Computing (12) Security (13) Software Engineering (14) Systems and Networking (15) Theory of Computing (16) Vision NYC: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Business & Entrepreneurship (3) Data & Modeling (4) Human-Centered Computing (5) Law & Policy (6) Security & Privacy (7) Technology, Society & Ethics



6 - Georgia Institute of Technology 佐治亚理工学院 (1) Computer Architecture (2) Databases (3) Foundations of Artificial Intelligence (4) Information Security (5) Programming Languages and Compilers (6) Networks (7) Software Engineering (8) Systems (9) Theory (10) Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning (11) Geometry, Graphics & Animation (12) Human-Centered Computing & Cognitive Science (13) Information Visualization & Visual Analytics (14) Robotics and Computational Perception (15) Social Computing & Computational Journalism (16) Ubiquitous and Wearable Computing (17) Virtual and Augmented Environments (18) Applied and Mathematical Cryptography (19) Cybersecurity and International Affairs (20) Cyber-Physical Systems (21) Cybersecurity Policy and Law (22) Election Security (23) Forensics and Attribution (24) Hardware Security and Sidechannel Analysis (25) Malware (26) Network and System Security (27) Privacy and Data Protection



6 - University of Washington - Seattle 华盛顿大学 Seattle: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Augmented & Virtual Reality (3) Computational & Synthetic Biology (4) Computer Architecture (5) Computer Graphics, Vision, Animation & Game Science (6) Computing for Development (7) Data Science (8) Data Management & Visualization (9) Fabrication (10) Human Computer Interaction & Accessible Technology (11) Machine Learning (12) Molecular Information Systems (13) Natural Language Processing (14) Programming Languages & Software Engineering (15) Robotics (16) Security & Privacy (17) Systems & Networking (18) Theory of Computation (19) Ubiquitous Computing (20) Wireless & Sensor Systems Tacoma和Bothell: 方向与老师都很少: https://www.tacoma.uw.edu/set/facultyresearch https://www.uwb.edu/stem/faculty/css-faculty

6 - Princeton University 普林斯顿大学 (1) Computational Biology (2) Computer Architecture (3) Economics / Computation (4) Human-Computer Interaction (5) Machine Learning (6) Natural Language Processing (7) Policy (8) Programming Languages / Compilers (9) Robotics (10) Security & Privacy (11) Systems (12) Theory (13) Vision / Graphics

9 - University of Texas - Austin 德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校 (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Bioinformantics and Computational Biology (3) Computer Architecture (4) Computer Vision (5) Formal Methods (6) Graphics and Visualization (7) Human-Computer Interaction (8) Intelligent Robotics (9) Machine Learning (10) Natural Language Processing (11) Operating Systems, Distributed Systems,& Networking (12) Parallel Computing (13) Programming Languages & Compilers (14) Scientific Computing (15) Security & Privacy (16) Theoretical Computer Science






11 - California Institute of Technology 加州理工学院
(1) Algorithmic Economics (2) Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (3) Computational Biology (4) Graphics and Geometry (5) Information Theory and Applied Probability (6) Mathematics of Data (7) Mathematical Modeling and Analysis (8) Molecular Programming and Synthetic Biology (9) Networked and Distributed Systems (10) Optimization (11) Quantum Information and Computation (12) Robotics and Autonomous Control (13) Scientific Computing and Numerical Analysis (14) Theoretical Computer Science








11 - Columbia University 哥伦毕业大学 (1) Theory (2) Graphics and User Interfaces (3) NLP & Speech (4) Security & Privacy (5) Computational Biology (6) Software Systems (7) Computer Engineering (8) Networking (9) Vision & Robotics (10) Machine Learning (11) Artificial Intelligence







11 - University of California - Los Angeles 加州大学洛杉矶分校 CS: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Computer System Architecture & CAD (3) Computational Systems Biology (4) Graphics & Vision (5) Information & Data Management (6) Network Systems (7) Software Systems (8) Computer Science Theory M.Eng. (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Autonomous Systems (3) Data Science (4) Digital Health Technology (5) Green Energy Systems (6) IoT Systems (7) Translational Medicine







11 - University of California - San Diego 加州大学圣地亚哥分校 (1) Algorithms, Complexity and Cryptography (Theory group) (2) Artificial Intelligence (3) Bioinformatics (4) Computer Architecture and Compilers (5) Computing Education Research (6) Databases and Information Management (7) Embedded Systems & Software (8) Human-Computer Interaction / The Design Lab (9) Programming Systems (10) Robotics (11) Security and Cryptography (12) Software Engineering (13) Systems and Networking (14) Ubiquitous Computing and eXtended Intelligence (15) Visual Computing (Computer Graphics and Computer Vision) (16) VLSI/CAD (Computer-Aided Design)







11 - University of Michigan - Ann Arbor 密歇根大学安娜堡分校 Ann Arbor: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Chip Design, Architecture, & Emerging Devices (3) Databases & Data Mining (4) Embedded & Mobile Systems (5) Formal Methods & Automated Reasoning (6) Human-Computer Interaction (7) Languages, Compilers, & Runtime Systems (8) Networking, Operating Systems, & Distributed Systems (9) Robotics (10) Secure, Trustworthy, & Reliable Systems (11) Theory of Computation (12) Warehouse-Scale & Parallel Systems Dearborn: (1) Automotive Engineering (2) Bioengineering (3) Computing and Networks (4) Cybersecurity (5) Data Management (6) Data Science (7) Game Design (8) Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Technology (9) Human Factors and Ergonomics (10) Integrated Design & Manufacturing (11) Machine Learning, Optimization, and Intelligent Systems (12) Materials and Material Processing (13) Nano Electronics and Photonic Materials and Devices (14) Operations Research and Decision Science (15) Power Electronics and Energy Systems (16) Robotics (17) Software Engineering (18) Vibrations and Mechanics (19) Wearable Sensors

Flint: 方向与老师都较少













16 - Harvard University 哈佛大学
(1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Computation and Society (3) Computational and Data Science (4) Computational Neuroscience (5) Computer Architecture (6) Economics and Computation (7) Graphics, Vision, and Visualization (8) Human-Computer Interaction (9) Machine Learning (10) Programming Languages (11) Systems, Networks, and Databases (12) Theory of Computation

17 - University of Maryland - College Park 马里兰大学帕克分校 College Park: (1) AI And Robotics (2) Algorithms And Theory (3) Bioinformatics And Computational Biology (4) Computer Vision And Machine Perception (5) Cybersecurity And Cryptography (6) Databases And Big Data (7) Graphics, Visualization, And VR/AR (8) High Performance And Scientific Computing (9) Human Computer Interaction (10) Information Retrieval And Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (11) IoT And Wearables Technology (12) Machine Learning And Data Science (13) Natural Language Processing (14) Programming Languages And Software Engineering (15) Quantum Computing (16) Systems And Networking Baltimore County: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Machine Learning and Data Mining (3) Multi-Agent Systems (4) Wireless Sensor Networks (5) Web 2.0 (6) Graphics and Visualization (7) Game Development (8) Systems (9) Security

17 - University of Pennsylvania 宾夕法尼亚大学 (1) Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence (2) Natural Language Processing (Computational Linguistics) (3) Robotics (4) Computer Vision and Graphics (5) AI for Health, Computational Biology and Biomedical/Clinical Informatics (6) Data Science Platforms, Machine Learning Systems, and Databases (7) Algorithmic Fairness and Data Privacy (8) Human-Computer Interaction (9) Computational Social Science (10) Computer Architecture and Quantum Computing Systems (11) Compilers and Program Analysis (12) Distributed Systems, Networks, and Operating Systems (13) Real-Time, Cyber-Physical, IoT, and Autonomous Systems (14) Computer Security and Cryptography (15) Algorithms and Computational Complexity (16) Formal Methods and Logic (17) Programming Languages

17 - University of Wisconsin - Madison 威斯康辛大学麦迪逊分校 Madison: (1) Computer Architecture (2) Computer Vision (3) Data Science (4) Database Systems (5) Graphics / Visual Computing (6) Human-Computer Interaction (7) Machine Learning (8) Networks (9) Numerical Analysis (10) Optimization (11) Programming Languages and Software Engineering (12) Robotics (13) Security and Privacy (14) Systems (15) Theory Milwaukee: (1) Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Natural Language Processing (2) Database and Information Systems (3) Image Processing and Computer Graphics (4) Medical and Bio Informatics (5) Programming Language and Compilers (6) Theory and Algorithms Whitewater与La Crosse:
方向与老师都较少

20 - Johns Hopkins University 约翰霍普金斯大学 (1) Theory & Programming Languages (2) Systems (3) Computational Biology and Medicine (4) Information Security (5) Natural Language Processing (6) Machine Learning and Data Intensive Computing (7) Robotics, Vision, and Graphics

20 - Purdue University - West Lafayette 普渡大学西拉法叶分校 West Lafeyette: (1) Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (2) Computer Architecture (3) Computational Science and Engineering (4) Databases and Data Mining (5) Distributed Systems (6) Graphics and Visualization (7) Human-Computer Interaction (8) Information Security and Assurance (9) Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Natural Language Processing (10) Networking and Operating Systems (11) Programming Languages and Compilers (12) Software Engineering (13) Robotics and Computer Vision (14) Theory of Computing, Algorithms, and Quantum Computing Northwest与Fort Wayne: 教授和方向都较少

20 - Yale University 耶鲁大学 (1) Algorithms and Complexity Theory (2) Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (3) Computer Architecture (4) Computer Graphics (5) Computer Music (6) Computer Networks (7) Database Systems (8) Distributed Computing (9) Natural Language Processing (10) Operating Systems (11) Programming Languages and Compilers (12) Quantum Computing (13) Robotics (14) Scientific Computing and Applied Math (15) Security and Cryptography (16) Societal and Humanistic Aspects of Computation

















23 - Duke University 杜克大学
(1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Computation + X (3) Computer Science Education (4) Data Science (5) Systems (6) Theoretical Computer Science

23 - University of Massachusetts - Amherst 马萨诸塞大学阿默斯特分校 Amherst: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (3) Data Management (4) Electronic Teaching (5) Health Informatics (6) Human Language Technologies (7) Human-Computer Interactions (8) Information Visualization (9) Machine Learning (10) Mobile and Sensor Systems (11) Networking and Distributed Systems (12) Robotics, Computer Vision, and Graphics (13) Security and Privacy (14) Software Systems and Architecture (15) Theoretical Computer Science Boston: (1) Computational Biology (2) Data Mining (3) Databases (4) Distributed Software Systems (5) High Performance Computing (6) Knowledge Discovery (7) Mobile Security and Privacy (8) Network Information Systems (9) Service Computing (10) Software Verification (11) Visual Atttention Dartmouth: (1) Advanced Materials & Manufacturing Innovation (2) Biomedical/Healthcare Engineering (3) Computational Science & Engineering (4) Cybersecurity (5) Intelligent Systems & Communication (6) Mobility (7) Sustainability Engineering Lowell: (1) Biotech, Life Sciences (2) Cybersecurity (3) Flexible Electronics & Smart Textiles (4) Robotics (5) Public Health (6) Energy

23 - University of Southern California 南加州大学 CS: (1) Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Privacy/FATE and Security (2) Theory and Computation (3) Systems, Databases, Software Engineering and CyberPhysical Systems (4) Computer Vision, Robotics, Graphics and HCI
CE: (1) Biological, Medical, and Biomedical (2) Communications, Information Theory, and Machine Learning (3) Computer Engineering (4) Control Systems (5) Electromagnetics and Energy Conversion (6) Integrated Circuits and Systems (7) Nanotechnology & Micro Electrical-Mechanical Systems (8) Networks (9) Parallel and Distributed Computing (10) Photon and Quantum Electronics (11) Quantum Information Processing (12) Signal and Image Processing

26 - University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill 北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校 Chaper Hill: (1) Autonomous and Cyber-Physical Systems (2) Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (3) Computer Architecture (4) Computer Graphics (5) Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (6) Computer Vision (7) Geometric Computing (8) High-Performance Computing (9) Human-Computer Interaction (10) Machine Learning and Data Science (11) Medical Image Analysis (12) Natural Language Processing (13) Networking (14) Operating Systems (15) Real-Time Systems (16) Robotics (17) Security (18) Software (19) Theory Charlotte: (1) Theory, Algorithms and Complexity of Computing, Computing Cryptography, Quantum Computing (2) Computer System and Networking (3) Parallel Computing, High Performance Computing, Distributed and Cloud Computing (4) Computer Vision, Graphics, Visualization and HCI (5) Security and Privacy (6) Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning (7) Human Language Processing (8) Embedded, Real-time, Robotics, and IoT (9) Database, Data Mining, Big Data, and Informatics (10) Programming Language Theory and Software Engineering (11) CS Education, Computer Ethics and Cognition Greensboro: (1) Algorithms and Theory of Computing (2) Artificial Intelligence (3) Data Science and Machine Learning (4) Database Systems (5) Extended Reality (6) Image Processing (7) Networking (8) Online Social Networks (9) Security and Cryptography Wilmington: (1) Biometrics (2) Software Development (3) Information Security (4) Mobile Development (5) Natural Language Processing (6) Parallel Computing (7) Wireless Sensor Networks (8) Computer Vision (9) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles




















28 - Northwestern University 西北大学 (1) Systems and Networking (2) Security and Privacy (3) Programming Languages (4) Theory (5) Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (6) Human-Computer Interaction and Information Visualization (7) Vision and Graphics (8) Robotics (9) Computer Engineering


28 - Rice University 莱斯大学 (1) Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (2) Robotics & AI (3) Computer Systems & Engineering (4) Programming Languages, HPC & Formal Methods (5) Machine Learning & Data Science (6) Quantum Computing


28 - University of California - Irvine 加州大学尔湾分校
CS:
(1) Algorithms and Complexity Theory (2) Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (3) Biomedical Informatics And Computational Biology (4) Computational-Social Relationships (5) Computer Architecture (6) Computer Games and Virtual Worlds (7) Computer Graphics and Visualization (8) Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (9) Computer Vision (10) Database Systems (11) Design (12) Educational Technology (13) Embedded Systems (14) Environmental Informatics (15) Health Informatics (16) Human-Computer Interaction (17) Information Retrieval and Visualization (18) Interactive and Collaborative Technologies (19) Medical Informatics (20) Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing (21) Multimedia Computing (22) Networks and Distributed Systems (23) Operating Systems (24) Organization Studies (25) Privacy and Personalization (26) Programming Languages and Software Engineering (27) Science and Technology Studies (28) Scientific and Numerical Computing (29) Security, Privacy, Cryptography (30) Social Informatics (31) Software Engineering (32) Software Systems (33) Statistics and Statistical Theory (34) Sustainability and Green IT (35) Ubiquitous Computing

Networked System:
(1) Middleware/Real-Time Networks (2) Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks/Sensor Networks/Peer to Peer Networks
(3) Network Performance/Traffic Engineering (4) Network Security Wireless Networks




28 - University of California - Santa Barbara 加州大学圣塔芭芭拉分校 (1) Algorithms & Theory (2) Computational Science and Engineering (3) Computer Architecture (4) Database and Information Systems (5) Human Centered and Social Computing (6) Machine Learning and Data Mining (7) Networking (8) Operating Systems and Distributed Systems (9) Programming Languages and Software Engineering (10) Security and Cryptography (11) Visual Computing and Interaction


28 - University of Chicago 芝加哥大学 (1) AI & Machine Learning (2) Computing Education (3) Data & Databases (4) Human Computer Interaction (5) Scientific & High Performance Computing (6) Security & Privacy (7) Programming Languages (8) Systems, Architecture & Networking (9) Theory (10) Visual Computing


28 - University of Virginia 弗吉尼亚大学 (1) Computer Systems, Architecture, and Networks (2) Cyber Physical Systems (3) Artificial Intelligence (4) Security (5) Software Engineering (6) Theory























34 - Northeastern University 东北大学
(1) Algorithms & Theory (2) Artificial Intelligence (3) Computational Biology (4) Data Science (5) Data Visualization (6) Formal Methods (7) Games (8) Human-Computer Interaction (9) Machine Learning (10) Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval (11) Network Science (12) Personal Health Informatics (13) Programming Languages (14) Robotics (15) Security and Privacy (16) Software Engineering (17) Systems and Networking





34 - Ohio State University 俄亥俄州立大学 (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Computer Graphics (3) Networking & Distributed Computing (4) Software Engineering & Programming Languages (5) Systems (6) Theory & Algorithms







34 - Pennsylvania State University - University Park 宾州州立大学公园分校 University Park: (1) Biomedical Devices and Systems (2) Communications, Information Theory, and Coding over Networked Systems (3) Computational Science (4) Computer Architecture (5) Control and Decision Systems (6) Data Science and Artificial Intelligence (7) Electromagnetics (8) Electronic Materials and Devices (9) Integrated Circuits and Systems (10) Network and Mobile Systems (11) Operating Systems and Cloud Computing (12) Optical Materials, Devices, and Systems (13) Power and Energy Systems (14) Programming Languages and Compilers (15) Remote Sensing and Space Systems (16) Security and Privacy (17) Signal and Image Processing (18) Theoretical Computer Science Harrisburg: 方向和老师都很少







34 - University of Minnesota - Twin Cities 明尼苏达大学双城分校
Twin Cities: (1) Architectures, Compiler Optimization, and Embedded Systems (2) Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (3) Data Mining, Databases, and Geographical Information Systems (4) Graphics and Immersive Computing (5) High Performance Computing (6) Human Computer Interaction (HCI) (7) Networks, Distributed Systems, and Security (8) Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (9) Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (10) Theoretical Foundations Duluth: (1) Biomedical and Health Informatics: Combining computer science, engineering, and medicine (2) Computational Linguistics (3) Computer Networking (4) Data Mining and Machine Learning (5) Data Mining, Database Management and Parallel Algorithms for GPU’s (6) Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) (7) Analysis of Algorithms, Theory of Evolutionary Computation (8) Information Retrieval (9) Natural Language Processing (10) Operating Systems & Security (11) Perception and Computer Graphics (12) Simulation and Environment Representation for Virtual Environments





























38 - New York University 纽约大学 Courant: (1) Algorithms & Theory (2) Computational Biology (3) Formal Methods & Verification (4) Graphics, Vision & User Interfaces (5) Machine Learning (6) Natural Language & Speech Processing (7) Networks, Operating & Distributed Systems (8) Scientific Computing Tandon: (1) Communications/IT (2) Cybersecurity (3) Data Science/AI/Robotics (4) Emerging Media (5) Health (6) Sustainability (7) Urban

38 - Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick 罗格斯新泽西州立大学新布伦瑞克分校 New Brunswick: (1) Computer and Network Systems (2) Intelligent Systems (3) Theory of Computing Camden: 方向和老师都很少

38 - Texas A&M University - College Station 德州农工大学 - 大学城 College Station/Galveston: (1) Algorithms and Theory (2) Artificial Intelligence, Intelligent Systems, Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing (3) Bioinformatics, Computational Biology (4) Computational Science (5) Computer Architecture (6) Computer Science Education (7) Computer Vision (8) Cyber-Physical Systems (9) Cybersecurity (10) Data Science (11) Databases, Data Mining, Information Retrieval Systems (12) Digital Humanities (13) Electronic Design Automation and VLSI (14) Embedded Systems (15) Gaming (16) Graphics, Visualization and Computational Fabrication (17) Health (18) Human-Centered Systems (19) Networks (20) Parallel and Distributed Computing (21) Programming Languages, Compilers (22) Robotics, Human-Robot Interaction (23) Software and Software Engineering (24) Systems

38 - University of Colorado - Boulder 科罗拉多大学博尔德分校 Boulder: (1) Artificial Intelligence (2) Complex Systems (3) Computational Biology (4) Cyber-Physical and Autonomous Systems (5) Human-Centered Computing (6) Numerical & Scientific Computing (7) Programming Languages & Software Engineering (8) Robotics (9) Systems & Networking (10) Theory of Computing Colorado Springs: (1) Cyber Security, Physical Security, and Homeland Security (2) Machine Learning and Computer Vision (3) Software Engineering and Software Testing (4) Computer Graphics and Human-Computer Interaction (5) High Performance Computing, Compilers, and Programming Languages (6) Computer Networks, Systems, and Distributed Computing (7) Cloud Computing and BigData Processing (8) Computer Science Education (9) Computational Economics and Algorithmic Game Theory (10) Cyber-Physical Systems (11) Bioinformatics/Computation Biology Denver: (1) Animation, Neuroscience, and Al Computer Graphics & VR (2) Cyber-Physical Systems (3) Cybersecurity & Secure Computing (4) Data Science,Big Data Management and Mining (5) High-Performance Distributed Computing (6) Machine Learning (7) Parallel and Distributed Systems Theory and Algorithms

38 - Virginia Tech - Blacksburg 弗吉尼亚理工大学 Blacksburg: (1) Computational Biology and Bioinformatics (2) Data Analytics, Machine Learning, NLP, and Vision (3) Digital Education (4) HPC and Computational Science (5) Human Computer Interaction (6) Quantum Computing (7) Security (8) Software Engineering (9) Systems (10) Theory and Algorithms Northern: 方向和老师都很少

一旦确定了方向,就需要利用全网的资源(比如名校课程、GitHub、以及各种技术论坛等等)来令自己在这个方向上成长。这个实在是很难枚举所有的资料hhh,所以我这里就不一一罗列了。

我强调下这个阶段的产出吧~产出应该是你选定的方向下的一套以5-6个personal projects为基础的初版简历(这样就可以用来去投递业界科研机会和学界科研机会了)。

首先,我相信你一定知道,在我们CS的世界,CS大神的类型真的很多:

对于硕士申请来说,你选择一种最适合自己的CS大神的画像,然后通过申硕文书去塑造自己的这个形象即可,只要你塑造的好,然后把名校CS硕士都申了,应该会至少有一个录取的。但是选择哪种形象,其实没有什么太大区别。

但是,你有没有想过,对于博士申请来说,教授具体喜欢哪种类型的CS人才呢?他在筛选PhD applicants的时候,脑子里在想什么东西呢?


我猜你可能会觉得是科研大神,对吧?也就是你感觉,教授应该最喜欢科研大神的形象的申请者。

嗯。。。这个问题的答案是:“是,也不是。”

其实教授不仅仅想招一个科研大神的人。因为教授的内心的声音其实是:

“我不想招一个人过来做我的学生,我其实想招一个廉价的independent researcher过来给我干活5年——我其实想招一个可以共事的同事。”

所以,肖哥认为,虽然博士依然是一个学生,但是最理想的博士能力画像其实是Independent Researcher画像——这是你申博之前、以及申博期间都要有的能力画像,这样才能更有希望拿下Top的CS PhD录取、以及更轻松更容易地读下来这个CS PhD。


那你在执行背景提升的时候,会经历什么样的过程?以及这4个材料发挥的作用的大小是否有变化呢?




(1)那我们就先看下从申博背景提升,到申博申请季到读博入学的时间线:




我感觉我列的这9种情况都不全。。。真实世界的CS博士申请真的什么情况都能发生,真的是乱七八糟、一地鸡毛....

至于最终的结果,反正从概率来说,比如你申15个学校的博士,那可能有0-3个录取,其余全是拒信。

但是我们可以大概总结一下一个PhD offer如果发生,那它可能有哪几种情况:



(2)然后我们就可以开始琢磨一下,从8月到2月这半年,既然如此的鸡飞狗跳,什么情况都有可能发生。。。那我们应该怀有什么样的心态和认知去看待CS博士申请这件事呢?


你有责任好好地跟着美国教授做科研,尽量发优质CS paper甚至是顶会paper。
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但是,由于发出高质量的CS paper很难,而且的确不是每个人都能中顶会paper的。
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所以需要思考如何在没有优质paper的情况下还能中Top的CS PhD。
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那就是需要让自己做的科研就是跟着美国的CS教授做的,且你做的不错,教授也很喜欢你。

虽然你这个经历没有发出来优质的CS paper,但是你与教授的长期合作后,教授已经有点离不开你了——他已经习惯了拥有你这个Research Assistant了,从而想要给你发一个CS PhD的录取,且这个教授也愿意给你出推荐信。
肖哥发现有很多本科生并没有很优质的paper但是也居然中了Top CS PhD,仔细看下这种人的经历就会发现他在本科的时候长期和某个教授合作,已经一起做科研做了好几年了,那这一看就是教授非常喜欢他、习惯了有他在自己身边帮自己做各种事情。


做一个科研也不够(一封学界科研推荐信也不够),所以得做多段科研,而且每个科研都最好有产出。并且这多段科研里的某一个教授还是学界的泰斗级人物,所以这种教授出的推荐信也是具有一言九鼎的分量的。因为名师会有名人效应,这种名人效应的确可以起到碾压其他博士申请者的效果。(不过,我希望你明白,名师的强推是可遇不可求的,的确有可能发生自己努力了也拿不到跟着名师做科研的机会、更不用提拿到这种教授的推荐信了。)
肖哥发现有不少多次申请博士的申请者,他们早期申博士屡战屡败,但是随着他们的成长,他们获得了跟随学界泰斗级的教授做科研的机会并且这个教授也很喜欢他们,然后他们就一下子因为名师的强推而拿到了多个优质的CS博士录取。


因此,申请博士之前,最好有3-4年的备战时间。在这漫长的时间里,跟着3-6个美国的CS教授做东西,这样你定向申请这些教授的PhD就会概率高很多,也会有更大的概率拿到至少一个名师的强推。
肖哥曾经有个陆本学员和美国的3个CS教授做过科研,然后这个学员去申请博士的时候,3个里的2个教授都给这个学员发CS博士录取了(并且这个学员没有高质量的paper)。


但是其实教授分成两种:

(1)与自己长期共事过的美国CS教授
(2)不认识自己的美国CS教授

对任何人来说,肯定都是(2)的数目要大于(1)的数目。

由于(1)的教授也未必100%就会给你发PhD录取,所以也需要考虑如何才能讨(2)的教授的喜欢——让不认识的教授相信自己具备Independent Researcher的能力。


所以,要用上面提到的4个素材来营造自己的Independent Researcher形象:
尤其是3和4这两个素材要好好搞,这样不认识你的老师才更有可能相信你的科研能力,从而愿意去认识你、了解你、甚至给你发PhD录取。所以,3和4能够成为1和2的强有力的补充、甚至在某些时候可以有替代1和2的作用。
肖哥发现有的博士申请者把自己的各种经验、总结发给不认识自己的CS教授后,会发生各种神奇现象:

(1)会有教授会回复邮件说:“虽然我不招PhD但是我相信你是一个优秀的researcher,所以我愿意把你介绍到这个方向的招PhD的教授那里。"

(2)会有与自己方向不完全一致的教授前来联系自己:“同学你好,我在applicant pool里发现了你,虽然我们方向不完全一致,但是也是有交集的,你要不要考虑我的组?”


(3)会有教授说:“你好,我们虽然不认识,但是我相信你是一个很top的researcher,我愿意给你写推荐信支持你的博士申请。我写的推荐信是基于我们之间的一个2-3个小时的语音,我们在这个语音里相对平等的沟通一下这个方向的有关的内容————我相信这个对话会非常informative和insightful。如果通过这个对话我能确信你是个专家,我会给你提供我的最强推荐信。”

(4)会有教授说:“我看到你在GitHub上的挺活跃的,而且你是XX project的contributor,并且你解决了很多issues,这些issues真的都挺有难度的,我挺相信你的能力的,我们聊一次吧,如果聊的合适,我可以考虑招你做PhD。”

(5)太多了就不一一列举了。。。




(3)如果你能看懂上面这个认知,那我觉得很容易就看出来这4个材料的重要性对比了。为了说清楚这个问题,我们分情况讨论一下
为避免遗忘,我还是先列下这4个材料都是什么:




然后我们看一下这4个材料的重要性的差别:
(其实这4个材料的重要性有各种可能性,因为取决于录取委员会的录取原则、教授的个人喜好等因素,所以这里给出的重要性对比真的是仅供参考。。。)

用到4个材料的2个场景
在这个场景下,4个材料的重要性对比
与网申系统直接相关(材料在网申系统里躺着,你等着被捞):
最有可能是2>1>3≈4,也有可能是2≈1>3>4或者1>2≈3>4(取决于不同大学的录取委员会约定的录取原则)

在那种你不认识任何教授的大学,那你的材料交是都交了,但是录取委员会可不知道这上千个人的材料里有一个你的材料,而且你的材料还包括一个4这种非常powerful的东西。。。所以,录取委员会可能会默认所有人都没有4,那可能此时首先要看的就是2了。如果2把你夸上天了,然后再看下你的1和3,看起来没问题后,可能都不会去看你的4,然后直接就决定录取不录取了。

此时录取委员会主要看这个推荐信有没有把你吹到天上去,得把你吹的贼牛逼才行。

在那种你认识教授的大学,你的材料在网申系统里也是会需要经过初筛的,而经过初筛也是主要看推荐西。看完推荐信后再看下你的其他材料到底咋样。然后如果过了初筛,此时你的4才有机会令你stand out,但是前提是教授们注意到了4的存在。如果教授们都没注意到,那4的重要性依然是垫底的。



**多说一句,PhD申请比硕士申请存在更严重的大小年问题。举个例子,比如CMU发了75个录取,但是CMU只预计来30个PhD,但是比如今年一下子来了60个PhD。那这可能会导致明年CMU直接几乎不招PhD了。。。因为学校没有那么多富裕的资金。当然了,如果今年预计来30个但是只来了5个,那明年就会多招很多PhD。

硕士申请为啥不存在明显的大小年问题呢,因为不管是今年多招了还是少招了,都不太会影响到下一年的名额,因为这个的本质是你给学校送钱,只要学校想招那就多招一些就是了。

与网申系统不直接相关(套远程科研机会、套磁、面试):
套远程科研机会的话,最有可能是是3>1>2>4

如果是套远程科研机会的话,教授可能要求不会那么高,所以即便是没有1和2他可能也不care,他更不会对这个套科研机会的人预期他有4,所以可能大概率是3最重要(你只要证明了你有基础、能干活,就有希望能拿到这个远程机会。


套磁和面试的话,最有可能是4≈2>1≈3,也有可能是2>4>3>1

如果有名师的推荐信,那这个推荐信是有名人效应的,会让不认识你的教授直接相信你靠谱。

如果没有名师的推荐信,那就是主要让public profiles引起教授对自己的注意。然后教授此时如果看到你有不错的paper/publication,此时也就是随便扫一下你的简历和个人陈述,就应该会愿意和你聊聊了。

注意!!!不同的老师在面对自己原本不认识的学生的时候,他最关注的、最看重的东西可能完全不同。比如有的教授只认paper(那就是1最重要),那你如果没有paper的话,即便是用4也打动不了他。

所以,虽然我这里给出了一个不等式,但是真的是仅供参考。
在现实世界的这一步,真的会遇到各种各样喜好的教授(认为1最重要、2最重要、3最重要、4最重要的教授都有)。所以这一步其实没有关于4个材料重要性对比的标准答案。

**多说一句,如果你真的想知道一个教授到底有多看重1这个材料,那你可以看一下这个教授的主页上陈列的自己正在带/带过的PhD,看下他们是哪年入学的,然后去这些PhD的google scholar上看下他们在入学年份之前的paper/publication到底多不多、以及发的paper/publication到底是什么分量(是水paper还是很有质量的paper)。

**再多说一句,你在写个人陈述的时候,你why school里要提多个相关的教授(也就是你喜欢某某教授然后想要跟着他做什么东西),因为真的不一定会拿到哪个教授的面试,所以得多提一些,然后why school不用写得太细。

在这4个材料中,只有推荐信的质量完全处于我们的掌控之外,所以也是最有风险的材料。肖哥想要提醒你一下,就是如果一个教授过于Top(例如是MIT的CS Professor),他可能见过太多聪明绝顶的research assistant,所以你即便是跟着这老师做东西了,然后也出成果了,但是他在推荐信里也未必对你评价那么高。。。他见过的精英太多了,所以你想要stand out然后让老师在推荐信里说你是top 1%的students什么的,实在是难度非常高。

所以,在申博之前的两三年甚至三四年的背景提升里,你要和美国教授做东西的话,这个美国教授肯定不能很差,但是也别太强、太吓人。。。我怕你辛辛苦苦地做东西然后也有了成果结果他依然觉得你是个菜逼,那这样就实在是太冤了。




(4)看到这里,你可能会说一句:“肖哥我知道了,我会好好准备这4个材料的。但是美国有这么多名校、每个名校里又有多位与我方向匹配的CS教授,那到底哪种教授的最有可能有招PhD的需求啊?也就是说这样的教授(可能是套他的远程科研机会、也可能是套磁来套他的PhD机会)的手上有更大的可能性有大量的PhD名额。”



针对这个问题,肖哥想说,教授的手上的名额多,也不见得一定会考虑你;教授的手上的名额少,也不见得不会考虑你。所以研究哪种教授的名额多,有种用错劲儿的感觉——你应该多多focus在背景提升上hhhh

但是如果你就是想知道哪种教授的名额有可能多一些,那从概率来看,可能是:

但是你不能因此就不去联系老一些的教授了啊,,,hhh 真的是Anything is possible,所以都要尝试啊。




(5)强committee制度与弱committee制度



其实我本来不想提强弱committee制度这件事,因为知道这个和不知道这个,意义不大。。。因为不管哪些学校是强committee、哪些学校是弱committee,你都是要老老实实、认认真真地打造你的申博画像(也就是independent researcher画像)。

但是总有人问这件事,唉hhh 我也能理解,那我就大概谈下我看到的一些东西好了。

先用大白话来说下这二者的定义:

强committee制度的学校:
录取不录取一个学生主要是由committee说了算。如果某个教授想要你,但是committee不同意,那你还是拿不到博士录取(教授想给你录取也给不了,因为决策权不在这个教授个人,而在committee)。
弱committee制度的学校:
录取不录取一个学生主要是由教授个人说了算。如果某个教授想要你,那就可以直接要了,committee的意见仅供教授参考(甚至压根就没有committee),那你就能顺利的拿到博士录取。


然后再说下肖哥的感受:根据肖哥的观察,很多Top的CS大学是强committee制度的,的确削弱了教授的权力。但是如果某个教授真的很喜欢你,他挖地三尺也会想出各种方法去和committee的members去沟通然后为你争取下来这个PhD名额。也就是说,这个教授会去和committee舌战群儒拼了老命也要给你发PhD录取。

所以说到底还是教授有多喜欢你,如果他真的很喜欢你、认可了你independent researcher的能力,然后他其实就会狗急跳墙、没办法也变得有办法地去为你争取博士录取。所以,如果一个教授在你套磁的时候告诉你“我们大学是强committee,我没有什么权利”,可能只是在委婉的说“你的能力我没看上,我不想去和committee的人去提我想要你做我的PhD,因为你不够优秀,你不值得我去和committee去撕逼然后去把他们说服了要招你。” 唉。。。

所以,与其去查阅哪个大学是强committee、哪个大学是弱committee,不如把精力都花在打造自己的independent researcher画像上。这样才能让不可能变为可能。



(6)长达3-4年的CS博士申请的背景提升之路要如何走


现在,我们了解了PhD申请的一地鸡毛以后,然后你可能会感叹一句“PhD申请简直是乱死了。。。没有什么规律、没有什么东西是确定的、感觉总有种心里不踏实的感觉”。。。。没错。的确这样。所以我不太想做CS PhD申请,因为学员即便是交钱给我,我也没有那个本事(我也不觉得任何导师有那个本事)去帮助学员去消掉如此多的不确定性。但是,不管你找申博导师辅导你申博,还是自己DIY申博,我们还是回到背景提升本身,看看背景提升要做什么事情(我们假设申博的背景提升是3年,从大一下学期一直到大四上学期):


但是,你需要明白,你按照这样的背景提升执行之后,不是说100%就有博士录取了因为到你申请CS博士的时候,真的依然是什么情况都有可能发生。。。哎太头疼了。。。

结论:
在至少3年的备战周期里,这4种材料都必须准备,而且要精心花大功夫去弄,然后让它们发挥1+1+1+1>4的效果,从而可以在申请两类CS教授(自己合作过的教授、不认识自己的教授)的时候以最大概率拿到一个面试机会甚至拿到CS博士录取。